History of Bergamot
Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia Risso) is a
citrus plant that grows almost exclusively in the narrow coastal
Calabria region in Southern Italy, due to sensitivity to the weather and
soil conditions. Bergamot juice was traditionally recognized by the
local population as a remedy for supporting healthy cholesterol level
and cardiovascular health. The medicinal use of bergamot, forgotten for
decades, is now being rediscovered.
The juice and albedo of bergamot has
a unique profile of flavonoid and glycosides, such as neoeriocitrin,
neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, neodesmin, rhoifolin and poncirin.
Naringin have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of
while neoeriocitrin and rutin have been found to exhibit a strong
capacity to prevent LDL from oxidation. Importantly, bergamot juice is
rich in brutieridine and melitidine with an
ability to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase.
bioactive compounds of extract of the juice and albedo of citrus
bergamia risso, standardized to > 30% polyphenolic flavanoids consisting
of Naringin, Neohesperidin, Neoeriocitrin, 1% Melitidine, and 2%
Brutelidine. Bergamonte® is produced using patented
extraction technology through collaborative works of various
Universities and research institutions in Italy. These flavanoids are
clinically proven to help maintain healthy cholesterol level†,
healthy blood glucose level, increase HDL-cholesterol, and promoting
healthy weight management.
Benefits of Bergamonte®
- Cardiovascular Health
- Supports Healthy
- Supports Healthy Blood
- Healthy Weight Loss
Citrus Bergamot Differs
From C. Aurantium...
Citrus Bergamot differs from C.
Aurantium as Citrus Bergamot does not contain Synepherine, N-methyltyramine,
and octopamine, which have been shown in research to constrict arteries,
increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, cause
heart-rhythm disorders, heart attack, and stroke.
Citrus Bergamot contains Melitidine
and Brutelidine which is absent in C. Aurantuim. Research has shown that
these compounds significantly reduce total cholesterol, LDL,
Triglycerides†, blood glucose levels, while increasing HDL.
Melitidine and Brutieridine
A published research article in the Journal of Natural Products 2009
showed that bergamot juice contained novel compounds with statin like
principles, having the 3-hydroxy3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) found to the
naringin (melitidine) and neohesperidin (brutieridine).
These novel compounds interfere with
the natural synthesis of the cholesterol pathway in the human body: The
HMG-CoA substrate interferes with the synthesis of the mevalonate acid,
blocking the cholesterol production.
Superior Full-Spectrum Antioxidant
Mode of Action
- Inhibiting HMG-CoA Reductase
- Inhibiting Phosphodiesterases
- 'Activating' AMPK
Efficacy Findings from
In an unpublished human clinical
trial involving 192 patients, the following are the result after
patients consumed 100ml of Citrus Bergamot juice for 30 days.
Hypoglycemic Activity of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction
Fitoterapia 82 (Nov 2011)
237 patients with hyperlipemia, hypercholesterolemic (HC, cLDL, low cHDL),
mixed dyslipidemic (HC and TG), or metabolic syndrome (HC, HT, and HG)
were taking either placebo, 500mg, 1000mg.
effect of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (500 and 1000 mg/daily) on
reactive vasodilatation in patients suffering from isolated
(HC) or mixed hyperlipidemia (HC/HT) and associated
hyperglycemia (HC/HT /HG).
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction reduces
total and LDL cholesterol levels (an effect accompanied by
elevation of cHDL), triglyceride levels and by a significant
decrease in blood glucose. Moreover, it
inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity and enhances reactive
Supports healthy cholesterol level†, increase LOX-1
expression and Protein Kinase B phosphorylation
International Journal of
In this open-label, parallel group, placebo-controlled study, 77
patients were randomly assigned either placebo, Rosuvastatin,
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction or combination of
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction with Rosuvastatin for 30 days.
Both doses of rosuvastatin and
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction help support healthy cholesterol level†
and reduce urinary mevalonate compared to control group. The benefits
are associated with significant reductions of biomarkers used for
detecting oxidative vascular damage, including malondialdehyde, oxyLDL
receptor LOX-1 and phosphoPKB.
Effects on LDL
Small Dense Particles, Metabolic Biomarkers, and Liver Function
Advances in Biological
Chemistry, 2014, 4, 129-137
107 patients with metabolic syndrome and non fatty liver disease were
given either placebo or 650 mg of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction twice a day for 120 days.
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction group showed significant reduction in fasting plasma
glucose, rotal cholesterol,
LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and increase of HDL cholesterol.
Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction decrease IDL particles by 51%, increase large LDL by 38%,
decrease small LDL by 35%, and 20% increase of total HDL particles.
Hepatorenal index was significantly reduced by 46%, accompanied by
reduction of hepatic ultrosonographic pattern of steatosis by 99%. This
suggests Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction improves both liver function and inflammation as
confirmed by reduction of TNF-α and CRP.
† Already within
the normal range
- Ross Walker, Elzbieta Janda and Vincenzo Mollace.
The Use of Bergamot-derived Polyphenol Fraction in Cardiometabolic
Risk Prevention and its Possible Mechanisms of Action. Cardiac
Health and Polyphenols. Chp 84, Pg 1085-1103, 2014
- Micaela Gliozzi, Ross Walker, Elzbjeta Janda,
Vincenzo Mollace. Bergamot polyphenolic fraction enhances
rosuvastatin-induced effect on LDLcholesterol, LOX-1 expression and
Protein Kinase B phosphorylation in patients with hyperlipidemia.
International Journal of Cardiology Dec 2013, 170(2):140-5
- Vincenzo Mollace, Iolanda Sacco, Elzbieta Janda,
Claudio Malara, Domenica Ventrice, Carmen Colica, Valeria Visalli,
Saverio Muscoli. Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot
polyphenols: From animal models to human studies. Fitoterapia 82
- Celia C, Trapasso E, Locatelli M, Navarra M,
Ventura CA, Wolfram J, Carafa M, Morittu VM, Britti D, Di Marzio L..
Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on
human neuroblastoma cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013 Dec
- Delle Monache S, Sanità P, Trapasso E, Ursino MR,
Dugo P, Russo M, Ferlazzo N, Calapai G, Angelucci A, Navarra M.
Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia
juice. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 16;8(4)
- Kang P, Suh SH, Min SS, Seol GH. The essential
oil of Citrus bergamia Risso induces vasorelaxation of the mouse
aorta by activating K(+) channels and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx. J
Pharm Pharmacol. 2013 May;65(5):745-9
- Leopoldini M, Malaj N, Toscano M, Sindona G,
Russo N. On the inhibitor effects of bergamot juice flavonoids
binding to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR)
enzyme. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 13;58(19):10768-73
- Di Donna L, De Luca G, Mazzotti F, Napoli A,
Salerno R, Taverna D, Sindona G. Statin-like principles of bergamot
fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl
flavonoid glycosides. J Nat Prod. 2009 Jul;72(7):1352-4
- Mollace V, Ragusa S, Sacco I, Muscoli C, Sculco
F, Visalli V, Palma E. The protective effect of bergamot oil extract
on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon
injury-related neointima formation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther.
- Natalizia Miceli, Maria Mondello, Maria Mondorte,
Vasileios Sdrafkakis, Paola Dugo, Maria Crupi. Hypolipidemic effects
of bergamot juice in rats Fed a Hypercholesterolemic Diet. J. Agric.
Food Chem., Vol. 55, No. 26, 2007
For more information on Bergamonte
* The products and the information provided have not
been evaluated by the Food and Drug administration. The product is not
intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.